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Turbulent times, when John II Casimir Vasa was on the throne (1648–1668), brought significant changes to Polish coinage. The most visible one was the emergence of a huge amount of small, pure copper coins – a depreciated szeląg (shilling). The shilling was called “boratynka” (borettine), after the name of an Italian Münzmeister (mint master), Tito Livio Burattini. He minted hundreds of millions of these coins in several mints, among others, at the castle of Ujazdów (today located within the city limits of Warsaw). The coins were needed to pay rebelling soldiers.
The second new feature in the Polish minting system was the introduction of a one-złoty silver coin in physical form. Until then, the złoty was only a unit of account. As in the past, it was equal to 30 grosz. In fact, however, its real value was half that due to the high content of copper. The złoty was called a tymf, after the name of another Münzmeister – Andreas Tümphe (from the Northern Germany).
It is understandable that these two very new types of coins have been selected to present the Polish coinage system of that time.
Designer: Dominika Karpińska-Kopiec
Depicts the reverse of a tymf, on which, below the crown, there is an uncharacteristic four-field escutcheon; the escutcheon is flanked by letters the A – T (Andreas Tümphe). The two upper fields of the escutcheon depict an Eagle and Pogoń (a mounted knight with a raised sword), the coat-of-arms of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania, respectively. The lower field includes an inscription specifying the denomination of the coin: XXX GRO / ·POL·; in the central part: the Garb (Sheaf of Wheat of the House of Vasa). Along the rim, the inscription reads MONET[A]:NOV[A]:ARG[ENTEA]:REG[NI] POL[ONIAE] 1663, which means: “a new silver coin of the Kingdom of Poland”.
Depicts the obverse of the tymf featuring a big regal monogram surmounted by the crown – ICR (Johannes Casimirus Rex). Circularly, along the rim, in two lines, there is an unusual inscription explaining the low quality of that coin: DAT·PRETIVM·SERVATA·SALVS· / POTIORQ3·METALLO EST, which means: “The value [of this coin] is defined by the preserved interests of [Rzeczpospolita (Commonwealth)], which is worth more than the metal”.
BORATYNKA, TYMF JANA KAZIMIERZA.