The large cents of 1858–1920 were significantly larger than modern one cent coins, having a diameter of 1 inch (25 mm), which is slightly larger than the modern 25¢ piece (its diameter being 23.58 millimetres or 0.928 inches). After Confederation, these coins were struck on the planchet of the British halfpenny and were roughly the same value. Pennies were issued sporadically in the third quarter of the 19th century. They were used in the Province of Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia upon Confederation in 1867.

Victoria (1819–1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe". Her reign of 63 years and seven months is known as the Victorian era and was longer than that of any of her predecessors. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire.

Engravers: Leonard Charles Wyon, George William de Saulles


Portrait of a more mature and portly Queen Victoria wearing a diademed crown.

Four major varieties on the obverse:
• OC1 (O = Obverse, C = Cent, 1 = Variant Type 1): Young queen, round chin, prominent lips.
• OC2: Noticeably aged face, chin and upper lip back.
• OC3: Several signs of aging on the face; angular double chin and bags under the eyes.
• OC4: Return to a less angular chin, upper lip less fleshy.

Dei Gratia Regina is a Latin title meaning By the Grace of God, Queen.



The facial value is encircled with maple leaves wrapped around a vine.

Three major varieties on the reverse:
• Provincial leaves: The same as used in the 1858-1859 reverse with some minor alterations to the stems and leaves of the vine branch (engraver: L. C. Wyon)
• Large leaves: Larger leaves, fewer veins (engraver: L. C. Wyon)
• Small leaves: Narrower leaves with deeper veins (engraver: G.W. de Saulles)

In the early years, Canada’s coins were struck in England at London’s Royal Mint or at the Heaton Mint in Birmingham. Issues struck at the Royal Mint do not bear a mint mark, but those produced by Heaton carry an “H”.

Mint mark of Heaton Mint, Birmingham (H):
• 1876, 1881, 1882, and 1890 the “H” lies directly below the date.
• 1898 and 1900, the “H” sits between the bottom leaf and the rim denticles.



1 Cent

KM# 7 Schön# 5
Material Bronze
Weight 5.67 g
Diameter 25.4 mm
Thickness 1.5 mm
Shape round
Alignment Medal
Heaton Mint, Birmingham (H)
Royal Mint

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Bronze, 4.54 g, ⌀ 25.4 mm

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Without DEI GRA

Bronze, 5.67 g, ⌀ 25.4 mm