Obverse. Photo © Bank of Russia
  • 2 Rubles 2012, Y# 1398, Russia, Federation, 200th Anniversary of Patriotic War Victory (1812), Warlords and Heroes: Dmitry Dokhturov
  • 2 Rubles 2012, Y# 1398, Russia, Federation, 200th Anniversary of Patriotic War Victory (1812), Warlords and Heroes: Dmitry Dokhturov
Description

The French invasion of Russia, known in Russia as the Patriotic War of 1812 and in France as the Russian Campaign, began on 24 June 1812 when Napoleon's Grande Armée crossed the Neman River. Through a series of long marches Napoleon pushed the army rapidly through Western Russia, winning a battle at Smolensk in August. Napoleon hoped the battle would mean an end of the march into Russia, but the Russian army slipped away from the engagement and continued to retreat into Russia while leaving Smolensk to burn.

On 7 September, the French caught up with the Russian army which had dug itself in on hillsides before a small town called Borodino, seventy miles west of Moscow. The battle that followed was the largest and bloodiest single-day action of the Napoleonic Wars, involving more than 250,000 soldiers and resulting in 70,000 casualties. The French gained a tactical victory, but at the cost of 49 general officers and thousands of men. The Russian army was able to extricate itself and withdrew the following day, leaving the French without the decisive victory Napoleon sought.

Napoleon entered Moscow a week later. The loss of Moscow did not compel Alexander I to sue for peace. The French advance toward Kaluga where Napoleon tried once more to engage the Russian army for a decisive action at the Battle of Maloyaroslavets. Despite holding a superior position, the Russians retreated following a sharp engagement, confirming that the Russians would not commit themselves to a pitched battle. Napoleon was forced to retreat. Lack of food and fodder for the horses, hypothermia from the bitter cold and persistent attacks upon isolated troops from Russian peasants and Cossacks led to great losses in men, and a general loss of discipline and cohesion in the army. When the remnants of Napoleon's army crossed the Berezina River in November, only 27,000 effective soldiers remained; the Grand Armée had lost some 380,000 men dead and 100,000 captured. The campaign effectively ended on 14 December 1812 with the last French troops leaving Russian soil.

Obverse

In the centre, a little to the left denomination of the coin: the figure 2 and words under it RUBLES and BANK OF RUSSIA written horizontal, below along the rim and on the right part of the disc the stylized vegetable ornament (vine sprig) in form of a branch with two interwoven caulescents, to the right at the rim the Moscow Mint's trademark (MMD).

Artist: E. V. Kramskaya

2
ММД
РУБЛЯ
БАНК РОССИИ
2012

Reverse

Depicts a portrait of Dmitry Dokhturov in the military uniform, below at the rim the inscription on a wide ribbon D.S. DOKHTUROV.

Dmitry Sergeyevich Dokhturov (1756-1816) was a Russian Infantry General and a prominent military leader during the Patriotic War of 1812.

Promoted to General of Infantry in 1810, Dokhturov fought in the Battle of Smolensk. In the Battle of Borodino he commanded in the center of the Russian line and after Pyotr Bagration was mortally wounded, he commanded the left flank. Dokhturov was involved in heavy fighting once again when he led his Sixth Corps in the Battle of Maloyaroslavets. When the Russians discovered that some French troops were near Fominskoe, Field Marshal Mikhail Kutuzov ordered Dokhturov to attack them. But just before Dokhturov attacked, Russian partisans warned him that the French force near Fominskoe was no mere detachment; it was the main French army, commanded by Napoleon himself. Thus was a Russian catastrophe averted. Kutuzov then sent Dokhturov to Maloyaroslavets, a town with a population of 1,600 people. Here Dokhturov encountered the corps of Napoleon's stepson, Eugène de Beauharnais, which consisted of largely Italian troops. Battle raged all day in the streets of Maloyaroslavets, as 32,000 Russians fought 24,000 Italians. The Italians in particular fought with distinction in this battle. By the end of the day the town had burned to the ground, killing hundreds of wounded Russian and Italian soldiers who in their desperate condition could not drag themselves out of the inferno. The battle was a draw, with perhaps a small advantage for the Italians. There were about 7,000 casualties on each side. Eugene and his Italians occupied Maloyaroslavets, but Dokhturov and his Russians occupied a strong position just south of town blocking the road to Kaluga.

Artist: A. D. Schablykin

Д.C. ДОХТУРОВ

Edge

2 Rubles

Y# 1398 CBR# 5710-0008
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Characteristics
Type Commemorative Issue (Circulating)
Material Nickel Plated Steel
Weight 5 g
Diameter 23 mm
Thickness 1.8 mm
Shape round
Alignment Medal
Mint
Moscow Mint (MMD)

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