Obverse. Photo © Dato Mikeladze
  • 1 Dirhem 1187-1210, Georgia, Kingdom, Tamar
  • 1 Dirhem 1187-1210, Georgia, Kingdom, Tamar
  • 1 Dirhem 1187-1210, Georgia, Kingdom, Tamar, (A1B2C0D1)x2E1
  • 1 Dirhem 1187-1210, Georgia, Kingdom, Tamar, Countermarks on Tamar's irregular coppers

Classification of Tamar's irregular coppers by Dato Mikeladze:

A. Circular legend of the obverse.
A0 - Circular legend absent
A1 - Circular legend with non-identified date
A2 - Circular legend with ჃႦ (Paschal cycle date 407 - AD 1187)
A3 - Circular legend with ჃႪ (Paschal cycle date 430 - AD 1210)

B. Number of rosettes on the obverse:
B0 - Rosettes absent
B1 - 6 rosettes
B2 - 7 rosettes
B3 - 8 rosettes

C. Central legend of the reverse:
С0 - unidentified type of central legend (when just a small part of legend visible because of weak struck or  circular  part is out of coin  because of too small sizes)
C1 - 5 line standard legend
C2 - 5 line legend with 5th different line:  ( عزه الله ادام)  = "may God establish his honor"  instead of  (اعز الله انصاره) = "may God increase his victories"
C3 - 4 line legend ( 5th line is absent)

D. Circular legend of the reverse:
D0 - Circular legend absent
D1 - Type of circular legend unidentified
D2 - Standard circular legend
D3 - Circular legend with date formula

E. Countermarks
E0 - coin without countermark (c/m)
E1 - c/m #1
E2 - c/m #2
E3 - c/m #3
E4 - c/m #4
E5 - c/m #5

Term "circular legend absent" should be applied only in cases when there is evidence that the legend was not present on the die and not in cases when the legend is absent due to the small size of the coin.

If any of countermarks exist more than one time, we use such formula: E1x2.

If we see at least one rosette and cannot exactly say how much rosettes exist on a particular coin, we count that this is a 6-rosette standard coin.

If a coin is double, or triple, or quadripole we use brackets for main coin formula (without countermarks). For example: (A1B1C0D2)x3E1x3E3E4

In multiple pieces, if subpoints of A, B, C, D are visible at least on one obverse or reverse, we use the richest formula for the whole coin, because multiple coins were struck by the same die. For example, triple coin (three obverses and three reverses), circular legend with Paschal cycle date 407 visible just on one of them.  We use A2 for the whole coin.


Tamar’s monogram written in Mkhedruli surrounded by design of 6 rosettes. Surrounding Asomtavruli legend.

The Georgian scripts are the three writing systems used to write the Georgian language: Asomtavruli, Nuskhuri and Mkhedruli. Although the systems differ in appearance, all three are unicase, their letters share the same names and alphabetical order, and are written horizontally from left to right. Of the three scripts, Mkhedruli was the civilian royal script of the Kingdom of Georgia mostly used for the royal charters. Mkhedruli is the standard script for modern Georgian and its related Kartvelian languages, whereas Asomtavruli and Nuskhuri are used only in ceremonial religious texts and iconography by the Georgian Orthodox Church.

ჃႦ = Paschal cycle date 407 = 1187 AD
ჃႪ = Paschal cycle date 430 = 1210 AD

The Paschal cycle (Qoronikon in Georgian), in the Eastern Orthodox Church, is the cycle of the moveable feasts built around Pascha (Easter).

Translation: T-ama-R
†In the name of God, this coin was struck in the year 407 of the Qoronikon



5-line Arabic lettering, surrounded by Arabic circular legend.

Translation: The great queen
glory of the world and faith
Tamar, daughter of Giorgi
champion of the Messiah
may God increase his victories

Circular legend: May God increase her glory and lengthen her shadow and strengthen her beneficence!

Arabic legend with date formula (very rare): In the name of God this dirhem has been struck in the year three and eighteen and five hundred 583AH - AD1187/88 (بسم الله ضرب هذا الدرهم سنة ثلثة و ثمانين و خمسمائة).

ألملكة ألمعظمة
خلال الدنيا و الدین
تامار بنت گيورگى
ظهير المسيح
اعز الله انصاره
الله جلالها و مدّ ظلالها واید اقبالها ضاعف

Production Hammering
Material Copper
Weight 9.5 g
Diameter 25 mm
Width -
Height -
Thickness 2 mm
Shape odd (fan)

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