Description

The Habsburg Monarchy or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918. The Monarchy was a composite state composed of territories within and outside the Holy Roman Empire, united only in the person of the monarch. The dynastic capital was Vienna, except from 1583 to 1611, when it was moved to Prague. From 1804 to 1867 the Habsburg Monarchy was formally unified as the Austrian Empire, and from 1867 to 1918 as the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The head of the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg was often elected Holy Roman Emperor: from 1415 until the Empire's dissolution in 1806.

1799 A, B, C issues (KM# 2115.1) are bigger in diameter (30,9-31 mm), thicker (2,9-3 mm) and heavier (16-17 g) and much scarcer than lighter coins struck in 1800 by the same mints (KM# 2115.2).

Obverse

Depicts a portrait of Francis II & I right surrounded by the legend "Francis II Dei Gratia Rex Roman(orum) Imper(ator) Semper (always) August (title 1st Roman emperor) Germania Hungaria Bohemia Rex (king) Archidux Austriae" ("Francis II, by god Grace Roman Emperor Always August, King of Germany, Hungary and Bohemia, Archduke of Austria"). Mintmark below.

Francis II (1768–1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until 6 August 1806, when he dissolved the Holy Roman Empire after the decisive defeat at the hands of the First French Empire led by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz. In 1804, he had founded the Austrian Empire and became Francis I, the first Emperor of Austria, ruling from 1804 to 1835, so later he was named the one and only Doppelkaiser (double emperor) in history. He was also Apostolic King of Hungary and Bohemia as Francis I.

FRANC·II·D·G·R·I·S·A·GER·HVN·BOH·REX·A·A·
E

Reverse

Depicts Imperial coat of arms (crowned double-headed eagle holding scepter and sword), value at centre (on breast), with Golden Fleece around, divided date.

The Holy Roman Empire likewise saw itself as the successor to the ancient Imperium and took the eagle as its heraldic beast – albeit in the one-headed version. The black eagle on a gold shield became the symbol of the title of king as well as of the empire. In the late Middle Ages the double-headed eagle appeared in the empire as well. It was introduced as the mark distinguishing the royal from the imperial title: the king, who was voted in by the electors, attained the title of emperor solely by being blessed and crowned by the pope in Rome. Only then did he have the right of taking the double eagle as symbol of the universal claim to power over Latin Christendom. This concept was elaborated by the custom of placing a halo or nimbus around the two heads, seen as a symbol of the sacred elevation of imperial majesty.

3
18 01

Edge
Characteristics
Material Copper
Weight 8.75 g
Diameter 30 mm
Thickness 2 mm
Shape round
Alignment Medal
Alt # KM# 2115.2, KM# 2115.3
Mints
Hall Mint
Karlsburg Mint (E)
Kremnica Mint (B)
Nagybanya Mint (G)
Prague Mint (C)
Schmöllnitz Mint (S)
Vienna Mint (A)

Related coins

Silver, 6.68 g, ⌀ 28 mm

Copper, 1.64 g, ⌀ 19 mm

Brass Plated Steel, 5.63 g, ⌀ 22 mm