Abdul Hamid II (1842–1918) reigned as the 34th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire - the last Sultan to exert effective control over the fracturing state. He oversaw a period of decline, with rebellions (particularly in the Balkans), and he presided over an unsuccessful war with the Russian Empire (1877-1878) followed by a successful war against the Kingdom of Greece in 1897.

Outside the Ottoman Empire, Sultan Abdul Hamid II gained the nickname the Red Sultan or the Bloody Sultan because of the Hamidian massacres of Armenians and Assyrians of 1894-1896 and the use of the secret police to silence dissent and the Young Turks movement. Loyal citizens called him the Grand Khagan (Turkish: Ulu Hakan) for his extraordinary efforts in modernising the empire and in keeping it intact in difficult times.

The Khedivate of Egypt (1867–1914) was an autonomous tributary state of the Ottoman Empire, established and ruled by the Muhammad Ali Dynasty following the defeat and expulsion of Napoleon Bonaparte's forces which brought an end to the short-lived French occupation of Lower Egypt. The Khedivate of Egypt had also expanded to control present-day Sudan, South Sudan, Eritrea, Israel, Lebanon, Jordan, Syria, Greece, Cyprus, southern and central Turkey, and northwestern Saudi Arabia.


Tughra in Abdul Hamid II name, value below, with flower.

A tughra (Ottoman Turkish: طغرا‎ tuğrâ) is a calligraphic monogram, seal or signature of a sultan that was affixed to all official documents and correspondence. It was also carved on his seal and stamped on the coins minted during his reign. Tughras served a purpose similar to the cartouche in ancient Egypt or the Royal Cypher of British monarchs, every Ottoman sultan had his own individual tughra.

عبد الحميد خان بن عبد المجيد مظفر دائما


Arabic legend with the year of the Sultan's reign on top and Ottoman Turkish legend "Struck in Egypt" and the accession year in Hejira (AH1293) below.

The date of the accession is accepted as the first year and is called "cülüs". The issuing date is a sum of the accession and regnal years minus 1.

ضرب في

Material Silver
Fineness 0.833
Weight 0.32 g
Diameter 14 mm
Thickness -
Shape round
Alignment Medal
Misr Mint

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