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Abdülaziz (1830–1876) was the 32nd Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and reigned between 25 June 1861 and 30 May 1876. He was the first Ottoman Sultan who travelled to Western Europe, visiting a number of important European capitals including Paris, London and Vienna in the summer of 1867.
Apart from his passion for the Ottoman Navy, which had the world's third-largest fleet in 1875 (after the British and French navies), the Sultan took an interest in documenting the Ottoman Empire. He was also interested in literature and was a talented classical music composer. He was deposed on grounds of mismanaging the Ottoman economy on 30 May 1876 and was found dead six days later under unnatural and mysterious circumstances.
The Eyalet of Egypt operated as an administrative division of the Ottoman Empire from 1517 to 1867. It originated as a result of the conquest of Mamluk Egypt by the Ottomans in 1517, following the Ottoman–Mamluk War (1516–17) and the absorption of Syria into the Empire in 1516. Egypt always proved a difficult province for the Ottoman Sultans to control, due in part to the continuing power and influence of the Mamluks, the Egyptian military caste who had ruled the country for centuries.
The Khedivate of Egypt (1867–1914) was an autonomous tributary state of the Ottoman Empire, established and ruled by the Muhammad Ali Dynasty following the defeat and expulsion of Napoleon Bonaparte's forces which brought an end to the short-lived French occupation of Lower Egypt. The Khedivate of Egypt had also expanded to control present-day Sudan, South Sudan, Eritrea, Israel, Lebanon, Jordan, Syria, Greece, Cyprus, southern and central Turkey, and northwestern Saudi Arabia.
Tughra in Abdülaziz name, value below, with a flower on the right.
عبد العزيز خان بن محمود مظفر دائما
Arabic legend with the year of the Sultan's reign on top and Ottoman Turkish legend "Struck in Egypt" and the accession year in Hejira (AH1277) below.