Obverse. Photo © Heritage Auctions
  • 1 Para 1835, KM# 163, Egypt, Eyalet / Khedivate, Mahmud II
  • 1 Para 1835, KM# 163, Egypt, Eyalet / Khedivate, Mahmud II

Mahmud II (1785–1839) was the 30th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1808 until his death in 1839.

His reign is recognized for the extensive administrative, military, and fiscal reforms he instituted, which culminated in the Decree of Tanzimat ("reorganization") that was carried out by his sons Abdulmejid I and Abdülaziz. Often described as "Peter the Great of Turkey", Mahmud's reforms included the 1826 abolition of the conservative Janissary corps, which removed a major obstacle to his and his successors' reforms in the Empire. The reforms he instituted were characterized by political and social changes, which would eventually lead to the birth of the modern Turkish Republic.

Notwithstanding his domestic reforms, Mahmud's reign was also marked by nationalist uprisings in Ottoman-ruled Serbia and Greece, leading to a loss of territory for the Empire following the emergence of an independent Greek state. In terms of the general social structure of the Ottoman Empire, Mahmud's reign was characterized by a major interest in Westernization; institutions, palace order, daily life, clothing, music and many other areas saw radical reform as the Ottoman Empire opened up to the modernization.

The Eyalet of Egypt operated as an administrative division of the Ottoman Empire from 1517 to 1867. It originated as a result of the conquest of Mamluk Egypt by the Ottomans in 1517, following the Ottoman–Mamluk War (1516–17) and the absorption of Syria into the Empire in 1516. Egypt always proved a difficult province for the Ottoman Sultans to control, due in part to the continuing power and influence of the Mamluks, the Egyptian military caste who had ruled the country for centuries.


Tughra in Mahmud II name.

A tughra (Ottoman Turkish: طغرا‎ tuğrâ) is a calligraphic monogram, seal or signature of a sultan that was affixed to all official documents and correspondence. It was also carved on his seal and stamped on the coins minted during his reign. Tughras served a purpose similar to the cartouche in ancient Egypt or the Royal Cypher of British monarchs, every Ottoman sultan had his own individual tughra.

محمود خان بن عبد الحميد مظفر دائما


Arabic legend with the year of the Sultan's reign on top and Ottoman Turkish legend "Struck in Egypt" and the accession year in Hejira (AH1223) below inside a circle.

The date of the accession is accepted as the first year and is called "cülüs". The issuing date is a sum of the accession and regnal years minus 1.

ضرب في


1 Para

Eyalet, Tughra without flower
KM# 163
Material Copper
Weight 1.52 g
Diameter 15 mm
Thickness -
Shape round
Alignment Medal
Misr Mint

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