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Saint Marinus left the island of Arba in present-day Croatia with his lifelong friend Leo, and went to the city of Rimini as a stonemason. After the Diocletianic Persecution following his Christian sermons, he escaped to the nearby Monte Titano, where he built a small church and thus founded what is now the city and state of San Marino. Afterwards Marinus was canonised as a saint. The official date of the founding of what is now known as the Republic is 3 September 301.
According to legend, he died in the winter of 366 and his last words were: "Relinquo vos liberos ab utroque homine" ("I leave you free from both men"). This somewhat mysterious phrase is most likely to refer to the two "men" from whose oppressive power Saint Marinus had decided to separate himself, becoming a hermit on Mount Titano: respectively the Emperor and the Pope. This affirmation of freedom (first and foremost fiscal franchise) from both the Empire and the Papal States, however legendary, has always been the inspiration of the tiny republic.
Engraver: Filippo Speranza
Crowned drop-shaped arms within wreath. Inscribed banner and date below.
RESPVBLICA S. MARINI
Standing Saint Marinus, holding inscribed scroll with arms of the Republic of San Marino. Value below.
RELINQVO VOS LIBEROS AB VTROQVE HOMINE
LIBERTAS * LIBERTAS