• 1 Sol 2020, Peru, 200th Anniversary of Peruvian Independence, Juan Pablo Vizcardo y Guzmán
  • 1 Sol 2020, Peru, 200th Anniversary of Peruvian Independence, Juan Pablo Vizcardo y Guzmán
Description

The series of nine coins marks the bicentennial of the nation’s independence in 2021 and represents individuals of the 18th and 19th centuries that fought for independence.

The Peruvian War of Independence was composed of a series of military conflicts in Peru beginning with viceroy Abascal military reconquest in 1811 in the battle of Guaqui, continuing with the definitive defeat of the Spanish Army in 1824 in the battle of Ayacucho, and culminating in 1826 with the Siege of Callao. The wars of independence took place with the background of the 1780–1781 uprising by indigenous leader Túpac Amaru II and the earlier removal of Upper Peru and the Río de la Plata regions from the Viceroyalty of Peru. Because of this the viceroy often had the support of the "Lima Oligarchy", who saw their elite interests threatened by popular rebellion and were opposed to the new commercial class in Buenos Aires. During the first decade of the 1800s Peru had been a stronghold for royalists, who fought those in favor of independence in Peru, Bolivia, Quito and Chile. Among the most important events during the war was the proclamation of independence of Peru by José de San Martín on 28 July 1821.

Obverse

Depicts the coat of arms of Peru surrounded by the inscription "Central Reserve Bank of Peru", date below.

Peruvian coat of arms consisting of three elements: the top left section shows the vicuña, the national animal, representing the fauna of Peru; the tree in the top right section is the cinchona tree (the source of quinine, a powerful anti-malarial drug and the key flavorant in tonic water), representing the national flora; and the bottom cornucopia with coins spilling from it, represents the mineral resources of the country. It has a palm branch on its left and an laurel one on its right, tied by a ribbon, as well as a Holm oak Civic Crown above it. These represent God, gold, and glory.

BANCO CENTRAL DE RESERVA DEL PERÚ
2020

Reverse

Depicts a portrait of Juan Pablo Viscardo y Guzmán, a quill pen and paper as an allegory of his "Letter to the American Spanish", value below. On the left side the inscription "Bicentennial 1821-2021", his name above. The symbol LMA on the right represents the mark of the National Mint on a background of vertical lines.

Juan Pablo Viscardo y Guzmán (1748–1798) was a Peruvian Jesuit, writer and campaigner for Latin American independence. He is widely recognised as a precursor of Peruvian independence and more widely, as an ardent opponent of Spanish colonialism in America. He played a crucial role in the development of British-Latin American relations.

Born in Pampacolca District, Peru to a Spanish colonial family, he was expelled from his own country and forced to live in exile. In 1791 he came to London, sponsored by the British Government to give account of the development of Latin America's pursuit of independence. Guzman wrote several important essays during his time in London promoting freedom for the Spanish Colonies, including “Letter to Spanish Americans” (1792) and “Peace and Prosperity in a New World” (1796), in which he criticises Spanish colonialism and its economic control. Juan Pablo Y Guzmán died in London in 1798 at the age of 50. There is a memorial plaque at the site, which is now 185 Baker Street.

JUAN PABLO VISCARDO
Y GUZMÁN
BICENTENARIO
1821-2021
1 SOL
LMA

Edge
Characteristics
Type Commemorative Issue (Circulating)
Material Nickel Brass
Weight 7.32 g
Diameter 25.5 mm
Thickness 3.02 mm
Shape round
Alignment Coin
Mint
Lima Mint

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